Shipping Glossary
COMMON SHIPPING TERMS
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Part Charter
  Where part of an airline's scheduled flight is sold as if it were a charter in its own right. Often incorrectly used as a synonym for split charter.
   
Part Load Charter
  Where a part of an aircraft's load is discharged at one destination and a part of it at another. This is distinct from a split charter where a number of consignments are carried to the same destination. Inbound, part loads are treated as single entity charters under the regulations in most countries.
   
Particular Averrage (PA)
  Partial loss or damage to goods.
   
Perils of the Sea
  Fortuitous accidents or casualties peculiar to transportation on navigable water, such as sinking, collision of vessel, striking a submerged object, or encountering heavy weather or other unusual forces of nature.
   
Perishables
  Any cargo that loses considerable value if it is delayed in transportation. This usually refers to fresh fruit and vegetables.
   
Phytosanitary Inspection Certificate
  A certificate issued by an exporting countries' Department of Agriculture indicating that a shipment has been inspected and is free of harmful pests and plant diseases.
   
Pilferage
  As used in marine insurance policies, the term denotes petty thievery-the taking of small parts of a shipment-as opposed to the theft of a whole shipment or large unit. Many ordinary marine insurance policies do not cover against pilferage, and when this coverage is desired it must be added to the policy.
   
Port Marks
  An identifying set of letters, numbers, or geometric symbols followed by the name of the port of destination that are placed on export shipments. Foreign government requirements may be exceedingly strict in the matter of port marks.
   
Port of Discharge
  A port where a vessel is off-loaded and cargo discharged.
   
Port of Entry
  A port at which foreign goods are admitted into the receiving country.
   
Port of Loading
  A port where cargo is loaded aboard the vessel, lashed, and stowed.
   
Prepaid Freight
  Generally speaking, freight charges both in ocean and air transport may be either prepaid in the currency of the country of export or they may be billed collect for payment by the consignee in his local currency. On shipments to some countries, however, freight charges must be prepaid because of foreign exchange regulations of the country of import or rules of steamship companies or airlines.
   
Prima Facie
  A Latin term frequently encountered in foreign trade that means "on first appearance." When a steamship company issues a clean bill of lading, it acknowledges that the goods were received "in apparent good order and condition" and this is said by the courts to constitute prima facie evidence of the conditions of the containers; that is, if nothing to the contrary appears, it must be inferred that the cargo was in good condition when received by the carrier.
   
P & I Club
  A mutual association of shipowners who provide protection against liabilities by means of contributions.
  Any physical piece of cargo in relation to transport consisting of the contents and its packing for the purpose of ease of handling by manual or mechanical means
  The final product of the packing operation consisting of the packing and its contents to facilitate manual or mechanical handling
   
Packaging
  Materials used for the containment, protection, handling, delivery and presentation of goods and the activities of placing and securing goods in those materials.
   
Packing Instruction
  Document issued within an enterprise giving instructions on how goods are to be packed.
   
Packing List
  Document specifying the contents of each individual package.
   
Pallet
  A platform on which goods can be stacked in order to facilitate the movement by a fork lift or sling.
   
Panamax Size
  The maximum measurements and dimensions of a vessel capable to pass the Panama Canal.
   
Payload
  The revenue-producing load carried by a means of transport.
   
Payment Against Documents
  Instructions given by a seller to a bank to the effect that the buyer may collect the documents necessary to obtain delivery of the goods only upon actual payment of the invoice.
   
Physical Distribution
  Those activities related to the flow of goods from the end of conversion to the customer. 
   
Pier
  That part of a wharf which is intended for the mooring of vessels.
   
Pilferage
  Petty stealing of goods from a ship's hold, cargo shed or warehouse.
   
Place of Acceptance
  The location where a consignment (shipment) is received by the carrier from the shipper viz. the place where the carrier's liability for transport venture commences.
   
Place of Delivery
  The location where a consignment (shipment) is delivered to the consignee viz. the place where the carrier's liability ends for the transport venture.
   
Place of Despatch
  Name and address specifying where goods are collected or taken over by the carrier (i.e. if other than consignor).
   
Place of Receipt
  The location where a consignment (shipment) is received by the carrier from the shipper viz. the place where the carrier's liability for transport venture commences.
   
Port of Call
  Place where a vessel actually drops anchor or moors during a certain voyage.
   
Port of Discharge
  The port where the cargo is actually loaded on board the sea (ocean) going vessel.
   
Precarriage
  The carriage of goods (containers) by any mode of transport from the place of receipt to the port (place) of loading into the ocean vessel (main means of transport).
   
Precarrier
  The carrier by which the goods are moved prior to the main transport.
   
Preshipment Inspection
  Abbreviation: PSI
  The checking of goods before shipment for the purpose of determining the quantity and/or quality of said goods by an independent surveyor (inspection company) for phytosanitary, sanitary and veterinary controls.
  Presently there is a tendency by developing countries to use the inspection also for the purpose of determining whether the price charged for certain goods is correct.
   
Principal
  Person for whom another acts as agent.
   
Pro Forma Invoice
  Draft invoice sent to an importer by the exporter prior to order confirmation and shipment to assist in matters relating to obtaining import licences or foreign exchange allocations, or simply to advise the value of a consignment so that letters of credit can be opened.
   
Project Cargo
  Quantity of goods connected to the same project and often carried on different moments and from various places.
   
Proof of Delivery
  The receipt signed by the consignee upon delivery.
   
Proper Shipping Name
  A name to be used to describe particular goods on all documents and notifications and, if appropriate, on the goods. basis (air cargo).
 
Protection and Indemnity Club
  Abbreviation: P & I club
  A mutual association of shipowners who provide protection against liabilities by means of contributions
 
 
 
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